David A. Kenny
April 4, 2024
Glossary   
 

a in the PERSON Model: The mutual effect of one perceiverís impression of a target on the impression of another perceiverís impression due to their communication of their impressions.

Act in the PERSON Model: A discrete behavior of a target that can be perceived by another person.

Actor Effect: In the SRM, the extent to which a person is consistent with his or her interaction partners; for perceptions, the term is called the perceiver effect.

Acquiescence: The tendency to agree or disagree with statements, regardless of whether those statements are positive.

Agreement:In the Revised Laing Typology, the extent to which two people have the same belief or opinion about a common object.

Assimilation:The extent to which a perceiver views different targets at the same level; indexed by the proportion of variance explained by the perceiver effect relative to the total variance or P/(P + T + R).

Assimilative Homogeneity:A perceiver views in-group members as more similar than out-group members.

Assumed Reciprocity: In the Revised Laing Typology, the extent to which a metaperceiver believes that his or her perception of a target matches how that metaperceiver views the target.

Assumed Agreement: In the Revised Laing Typology, the extent to which a person believes he or she has the same belief or opinion about an object, as someone else does.

Assumed Similarity: In the Revised Laing Typology, a perceiverís belief that a target is the same on some dimension as the perceiver sees him or herself.

Assumed Understanding: In the Revised Laing Typology, a perceiverís belief than a target views the perceiver in the same way as the perceiver views him or herself.

b in the PERSON Model: The correlation between the O and R terms; the idiographic kernel‑of‑truth parameter.

Big Five:The five fundamental dimensions of personality: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism (Emotional Stability), and Openness (Culture).

Big Two: The two fundamental dimensions of personality: Friendliness (also called Communion or Warmth) and Dominance (also called Agency or Competence).

Circumscribed Accuracy: The extent to which a perceiver can accurately predict a targetís behavior when that target interacts with the perceiver.

Consensual Out-Group Homogeneity: Perceptions of in-group members show greater agreement than perception of out-group members.

Consensus: The extent to which perceivers agree with one another in their judgments about a common target; indexed by the proportion of variance explained by the target effect relative to the total variance or T/(P + T + R).

Constant Bias:The difference between the average perception and average truth.

Correlation: A measure of linear association between two variables that varies from one or perfect positive association (as one variable increases, so does the other) to negative one (as one variable increases, the other decreases); zero correlation implies no linear association.

Correction for Attenuation:Changing a correlation or regression coefficient to make an allowance for measurement error in the measures.

Distinctive Accuracy:The extent to which the Truth predicts impressions, controlling for the Average Truth.

Dyadic Accuracy:The extent to which the relationship effect of a perceiverís impression of target matches the relationship effect of how that target actually behaves with the perceiver.

Dyadic Reciprocity:For two people, the extent to which their relationship effects match; the extent to which two people uniquely see each other in the same way.

Elevation Accuracy:Across all perceivers and all targets, the correspondence between the average perception and the truth.

Empathy: In the Revised Laing Typology, the ability to know what another person believes or thinks about some object.

Error (E) in the PERSON Model:The part in scale values for an act not due to the P, O, or N term; the symbol E is used both to symbolize this term as well as its variance.

Generalized Accuracy:The extent to which the target effect in impressions matches how that target actually behaves on average with others.

Generalized Meta-Accuracy:The association between a metaperceiverís general view of how others see him or her and how others actually see that metaperceiver.

Generalized Other: A personís internalized impression of how people in general view the world.

Generalized Reciprocity: The correlation between a personís perceiver and target effects; sometimes called individual reciprocity.

Global Accuracy: The ability of a person to predict a targetís behavior when interacting with other persons.

Group Effect: The average response for all perceivers of all the targets in a given group after removing the average response across all groups.

Homocentric Anthropomorphism: The extent to which the perceiver effect for ratings of people and for the ratings of the dogs are similar.

Idiographic Kernel of Truth in the PERSON Model:The correlation of the R and O terms, symbolized by b.

Idiographic Accuracy: The correlation or slope with the truth predicting a set of judgments made by perceiver of a target.

k in Self-Perception:The weight of the perceiver effect in explaining self-perception.

Kernel of Truth: The extent to which a stereotype is reflected in behavior.

Local Accuracy:The extent to which a perceiverís impression of a target is accurate in a particular setting.

m in the PERSON Model: The correlation of the S and P terms, which is a measure of the nomothetic kernel of truth.

Metaperception: The perception that a perceiver has of a targetís impression.

Meta-Accuracy:In the Revised Laing Typology, the extent to which a metaperceiver belief about he or she is viewed by a target matches how that target view the metaperceiver.

Meta-Enhancement:The extent to which metaperceivers over or under-estimate how positively others view them.

Meta-Expectation:A perceiverís forecast of what a target would expect that perceiver would do in a particular situation.

Meta-Reciprocity: In the Revised Laing Typology, if perceiver views a target one way, does that target think that perceiver views him or her in the same way?

Meta-Stereotype:A perceiverís belief of what one group thinks about another group; the perceiver might be a member of one or both groups.

n in the PERSON Model:The number of acts viewed by a perceiver.

NaÔve Theory of Metaperception:The belief that people form metaperceptions by examining the reactions, both verbal and nonverbal, of others to their behavior.

Nested Design: A design in which a perceiver makes multiple judgement about different targets, but each target is only judged by a single perceiver or a design in which each target is judged by multiple perceivers, but each perceiver judges a single target; sometimes called a one-with-many design.

Nomothetic Accuracy:The extent to which perceivers are accurate in their impressions of targets in general on a given dimension.

Nomothetic Kernel of Truth in the PERSON Model:The correlation of the S and P terms, symbolized by m.

Norm (N) in the PERSON Model: The average of all scale values by all perceivers of the same act; the symbol N is used both to symbolize this term as well as its variance.

Normative Accuracy:The extent to which the Average Truth predicts impressions, controlling for the Truth.

Oblique Reciprocity:In the Revised Laing Typology, if one perceiver sees him or herself one way, does another person think that perceiver sees him or her in the same way?

Opinion (O) in the PERSON Model:The average of all scale values of a given targetís acts across all possible acts and all possible perceivers minus the P term; the symbol O is used both to symbolize this term as well as its variance.

Pc in the PERSON Model:The average of all scale values of a given targetís acts across all possible acts and all possible perceivers within a given context, c.

Pg in the PERSON Model:The average of all scale values of a given targetís acts across all possible acts and all possible perceivers in all contexts.

Partner Effect: In the SRM, the extent to which a people respond consistently to an interaction partner; for perceptions, the term is called the target effect.

Perceiver Effect: the average response for the perceiver of the class of targets after removing the average response of all perceivers of the class of targets.

Perceiver Distinctive Accuracy: In the Social Accuracy Model, the extent to some perceivers are more accurate at perceiving targets on a set of traits than other perceivers.

Perceiver Normative Accuracy: In the Social Accuracy Model, the extent to some perceivers are more normatively accurate at perceiving targets on a set of traits than other perceivers.

Perceiver Variance: In the Social Relations Model, the amount variance of a perception due to the perceiver effect.

PERSON Model:A theoretical model of interpersonal perception that presumes that an impression can be broken down in the evaluation of individual acts (i.e., scale values); the impression can be decomposed into six different sources of variance that give rise to the acronym of PERSON.

Personal Stereotype: The variance in the perceiver effect that cannot be explained by

Personality (P) in the PERSON Model: The average of all scale values of a given targetís acts across all possible acts and all possible perceivers; the symbol P is used both to symbolize this term as well as its variance.

Positivity:The extent to which a perceiver tends to evaluate all targets either favorably or unfavorably.

q in the PERSON Model:The percentage of acts viewed by two different perceivers that are the same.

q in Self-Perception:The weight of the target effect in explaining self-perception.

Reciprocity: In the Revised Laing Typology, for a dyad, the extent to which the two personís perceptions of one another match.

Relational Out-Group Homogeneity: The relationship effect for perceptions of in-group members are more variable than the relationship effects of out-group members.

Relationship Effect: The perception after subtracting the perceiver effect, the target effect, and the average response.

Relational Distinctive Accuracy:In the Social Accuracy Model, the extent to a perceiver of one target is more accurate at perceiving that target on a set of traits than are other perceivers of that target and of other targets.

Relational Normative Accuracy:In the Social Accuracy Model, the extent to a perceiver of one target is more normatively accurate at perceiving that target on a set of traits than are other perceivers of that target and of other targets.

Relationship Variance: In the Social Relations Model, the amount variance of a perception due to the relationship effect, symbolized by R.

Residual (R) in the PERSON Model:That part of the physical appearance scale values that is unshared across perceivers; the symbol R is used both to symbolize this term as well as its variance.

Round-Robin Design:A design in which for a group of persons, all of them judge one another.

Scale Value:The theoretical evaluation of a single act by a perceiver, independent of all other information about the target.

Self-Accuracy: The extent to which a self-perception matches the truth.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy:The extent to which a perceiverís impression of a target leads to changes in the behavior, consistent with the impression; in some cases, the perceiver and target may be the same person.

Self-Effacement:The extent to which a perceiver evaluates him or herself more negatively than either others evaluate the perceiver or more negatively than the perceiver evaluates others.

Self-Enhancement:The extent to which a perceiver evaluates him or herself more positively than either others evaluate the perceiver or more positively than the perceiver evaluates others; if negative, it is can be called self-effacement.

Self‑Observation View of Metaperception:The belief that people form metaperceptions by examining their own behavior.

Self-Other Agreement:The extent to which the target effect of a given person correlates with the personís self-perception.

Self-Stereotype:The extent to which a social stereotype is related to individualís self‑perceptions.

Self‑Theory of Metaperception:The belief that people form metaperceptions by using the global perceptions of themselves.

Similarity: In the Revised Laing Typology, do two or more people share a common characteristic?

Social Accuracy Model (SAM):A multilevel model that examines the effect the Truth and Average Truth on perceiverís impressions of targets.

Social Relations Model (SRM): A statistical model in which a perception is assumed to equal he sum of the perceiver, the target, and relationship effects plus the average of all judgments.

Stereotype (S) in the PERSON Model:That part of the physical appearance scale values that is shared across perceivers; the symbol S is used both to symbolize this term as well as its variance.

Stereotype Accuracy: The extent to which a stereotype matches the behavior of target.

Target Effect: The average response for all perceivers for the target after removing the average response of all perceivers of the class of targets.

Target Distinctive Accuracy:In the Social Accuracy Model, the extent to some targets are more accurately perceived on a set of traits than other targets.

Target Normative Accuracy:In the Social Accuracy Model, the extent to some targets are more normatively accurately perceived on a set of traits than are other targets.

Target Variance: In the Social Relations Model, the amount variance of a perception due to the target effect, symbolized by T.

Three-Person Metaperception: How a judge, person one, might think a perceiver, person two, might view a target, person three.

Total Variance: The sum of perceiver, target, and relationship variance.In some studies, the group variance is also included.

Two-Person Metaperception:How a perceiver, person one, thinks a target, person two views him or her.

Understanding:In the Revised Laing Typology, the extent to which a perceiverís view of a target is consistent with that targetís self-view.

Uniqueness: The extent to which a perceiver views targets differently and the target is viewed differently; indexed by the proportion of variance explained by the relationship effect relative to the total variance or R/(P + T + R).

Variance: The extent to which scores on a variable differ from one another.

WAM or the Weighted Average Model: A precursor of the PERSON model that parameterizes the model in terms of correlations between scale values.


 

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