David A. Kenny
April 18, 1998
For reciprocity, if person A sees B one way, does B see A the same way? Using the
Social Relations Model, there are two forms of reciprocity: generalized
and dyadic reciprocity. Generalized reciprocity implies a correlation between
perceiver and target effects. So if A sees others as friendly, is A seen as
friendly? Dyadic reciprocity implies a correlation between relationship effects.
So if A sees B as especially friendly, does B see A as especially friendly?
Dyadic reciprocity is closer to what we usually mean by the term reciprocity.
It should be noted that often reciprocity has a temporal meaning: A smiles at B, and
then B smiles at A. Reciprocity here does not have that meaning.
For assumed reciprocity, if perceiver A sees B one way, does A think that B sees him
or her the same way. Using the
Social Relations Model, there are three forms of reciprocity: generalized
and dyadic reciprocity. Perceiver assumed reciprocity implies a correlation between
how a person sees others in general and how the person thinks that others see him or her in general.
Generalized assumed reciprocity implies a correlation between
target effects in perceptions and meta-perceptions. So if A is seen by others as friendly, does others think that A sees
them as friendly? Dyadic assumed reciprocity implies a correlation between relationship effects.
So if A sees B as especially friendly, does A think that B sees A as especially friendly?
There is not much evidence for reciprocity in the perception of traits.
There is some evidence for generalized reciprocity for perceptions of
factor of agreeableness.
That is, if person A is seen by others as agreeable, that person sees others
as agreeable. Liking measures show clear evidence of dyadic reciprocity.
That is, if A tends to particularly like B, B then particularly likes A.
Moreover, there is evidence of increases in the reciprocity of liking as a function of acquaintance.
Assumed reciprocity of trait perception is weak. However, assumed reciprocity of liking is
one of the strongest effects in interpersonal perception. Both generalized
and dyadic assumed reciprocity are found.
Chapter 6 of
Interpersonal Perception: A Social Relations Analysis
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