David A. Kenny
April 18, 1998




For reciprocity, if person A sees B one way, does B see A the same way? Using the Social Relations Model, there are two forms of reciprocity: generalized and dyadic reciprocity. Generalized reciprocity implies a correlation between perceiver and target effects. So if A sees others as friendly, is A seen as friendly? Dyadic reciprocity implies a correlation between relationship effects. So if A sees B as especially friendly, does B see A as especially friendly? Dyadic reciprocity is closer to what we usually mean by the term reciprocity.

It should be noted that often reciprocity has a temporal meaning: A smiles at B, and then B smiles at A. Reciprocity here does not have that meaning.

For assumed reciprocity, if perceiver A sees B one way, does A think that B sees him or her the same way. Using the
Social Relations Model, there are three forms of reciprocity: generalized and dyadic reciprocity. Perceiver assumed reciprocity implies a correlation between how a person sees others in general and how the person thinks that others see him or her in general. Generalized assumed reciprocity implies a correlation between target effects in perceptions and meta-perceptions. So if A is seen by others as friendly, does others think that A sees them as friendly? Dyadic assumed reciprocity implies a correlation between relationship effects. So if A sees B as especially friendly, does A think that B sees A as especially friendly?



There is not much evidence for reciprocity in the perception of traits. There is some evidence for generalized reciprocity for perceptions of
Big Five factor of agreeableness. That is, if person A is seen by others as agreeable, that person sees others as agreeable. Liking measures show clear evidence of dyadic reciprocity. That is, if A tends to particularly like B, B then particularly likes A. Moreover, there is evidence of increases in the reciprocity of liking as a function of acquaintance.

Assumed reciprocity of trait perception is weak. However, assumed reciprocity of liking is one of the strongest effects in interpersonal perception. Both generalized and dyadic assumed reciprocity are found.



Chapter 6 of Interpersonal Perception: A Social Relations Analysis


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